|Sulfuric |or sulphuric || حمض الكبريتيك
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Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. It is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sulfuric acid has many applications, and is one of the top products of the chemical industry. World production in 2001 was 165 million tonnes, with an approximate value of US$8 billion. Principal uses include lead-acid batteries for cars and other vehicles, ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis.
Forms of sulfuric acid
Although nearly 100% sulfuric acid can be made, this loses SO3 at the boiling point to produce 98.3% acid. The 98% grade is more stable in storage, and is the usual form of what is described as concentrated sulfuric acid. Other concentrations are used for different purposes. Some common concentrations are
- 10%, dilute sulfuric acid for laboratory use,
- 33.53%, battery acid (used in lead-acid batteries),
- 62.18%, chamber or fertilizer acid,
- 73.61%, tower or Glover acid,
- 97%, concentrated acid.
Different purities are also available. Technical grade H2SO4 is impure and often colored, but is suitable for making fertilizer. Pure grades such as United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) grade are used for making pharmaceuticals and dyestuffs.
When high concentrations of SO3(g) are added to sulfuric acid, H2S2O7, called pyrosulfuric acid, fuming sulfuric acid or oleum or, less commonly, Nordhausen acid, is formed. Concentrations of oleum are either expressed in terms of% SO3 (called% oleum) or as% H2SO4 (the amount made if H2O were added); common concentrations are 40% oleum (109% H2SO4) and 65% oleum (114.6% H2SO4). Pure H2S2O7 is a solid with melting point 36°C.